St. John's Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" encompasses a large variety of pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, pleura, pleural cavity, alveoli in addition to the muscles and nerves responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like for instance bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, while those specializing doctors in this particular field are referred to as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this particular field might likewise be known as: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are many classifications utilized for the various respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of connected symptoms and signs, or according to the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This specific disease, that consists of emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common cause of acute respiratory disease is an allergic response caused by exposure to various foods and agents. There are several really common allergens found in certain foods such as lemon, radish, sea foods such as some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, pomegranates, dairy and ice creams, lemon, arrowroot, berries and lady's finger. Weather conditions could also affect several people because sandy and dusty weather during summertime may make the quality of air poor for people who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways including the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, hence making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases result in incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into lower respiratory tract infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common kind of upper respiratory infection. Infections of specific organs found in the upper respiratory tract like for example pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are likewise in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia. This particular lung infection will typically be caused by Streptococcus within the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia all over the world. Various fungi and viruses could result in pneumonia also, for instance pneumocystis pneumonia and acute respiratory syndrome.
Respiratory tumours are either benign or malignant.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Pleural cavity diseases comprise mesothelioma and emphysema. A pleural effusion is a collection of fluid in the pleural cavity. This can be due to situations such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can even happen from TB, pleura inflammation, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and various conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and allows air inside the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is referred to as a pneumothorax. In this example, the affected lung collapses similar to a balloon that is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air could not escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the heart and blood vessels, resulting in a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions which affect the pulmonary circulation are referred to as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Various instances include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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